When a pregnancy is terminated before 20 weeks of gestation.
When pregnancy is lost naturally within 20 weeks of pregnancy.
When 3 or more spontaneous abortions occur in a row.
An abortion that causes pain and bleeding, but still keeps embryonic and fetal tissue inside the uterus.
The loss of a fetus with no known symptoms. A D&C is required to complete the abortion.
When a pregnancy is terminated due to a mother's health in question.
Spotting/cramping within the first 20 weeks of gestation that may cause a miscarriage.
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal gland. This is sometimes associated with infertility.
Bands of scar tissue found in reproductive organs and abdominal area that can impact fertility; this often pairs with endometriosis.
Male hormones that are elevated in women with PCOS. They are produced in the adrenal gland and can cause fertility problems.
When menstruation is absent for more than six months.
Never menstruating by age 16.
When a woman has not menstruated in 3 months or more after previously experiencing menstruation.
American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)
A group of reproductive and fertility specialists that teach, research and advocate for reproductive medicine.
A procedure to check an abnormal fetus by extracting amniotic fluid from the womb with a needle.
A doctor specializing in male health, especially reproductive health and male fertility.
A lack of ovulation that can occur with or without menstruation.
Substances that attack foreign matter in the body and fight infection. This also can sometimes cause infertility.
Artificial Insemination (AI)
Injecting a sperm directly into a female's vagina, cervix or uterus to fertilize an egg.
A condition in which scar tissue forms in the uterus, leading to an irregular menstrual cycle or possibly infertility.
When fluid or tissue is suctioned from the body with a tube or needle.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
Fertility treatments that involve both the egg and sperm, including IUI, IVF, GIFT, and ZIFT.
A procedure that breaks down the thick outer wall of an embryo to begin implantation.
Poor quality sperm caused by reduced motility.
When sperm is missing in semen sometimes due to blockages.
Basal Body Temperature (BBT)
When a temperature is taken first thing in the morning after waking up that rises and falls because of changes in hormone levels in a menstrual cycle.
Beta hCG Test
A blood test measuring hCG levels in early pregnancy.
Abnormal issues in the uterus structure that can be fixed with surgery, but may cause infertility.
Blighted ovum (egg)
A fertilized egg implanted in the uterus that has not developed properly.
A medication treating pituitary tumors and reduces levels of prolactin.
When an ART cycle is stopped due to issues with follicle development, lack of fertilization, or other problems.
An infection in the vagina caused by fungus that can lead to pain, itching and discomfort.
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
A blood test measuring red and white blood cells, hemoglobin and other factors to determine any potential disease.
Mucus found in the cervix that changes consistency during the menstrual cycle.
A cellular sample taken from the cervix to screen for abnormalities and cancer.
A one inch A1:D199 canal located above the vagina at the lower end of the uterus through which blood passes during A1:D199 sperm travels into to reach the fallopian tubes, and the baby passes through during birth.
When the cervix opens during pregnancy before baby is fully-developed, and labor is ready to begin.
When an egg implants itself before being fully developed; this is the cause of many miscarriages.
Ovarian cysts that have old blood that has turned brown.
Our genetic material held in a structure.
Hair-like structures that move the egg into the fallopian tubes.
A confirmed pregnancy through clinical intervention, such as an ultrasound.
A medication that creates a surge of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland and boosts fertility by stimulating ovulation.
Endocrine tissue secreting progesterone when ovulation is over and pregnancy occurs to boost implantation.
Using a freezing environment to preserve eggs, embryos and sperm for fertility treatment and ART.
An excess of corticosteroids, like cortisol that causes weight gain, male sex characteristics and other symptoms in women that can lead to infertility.
A round of fertility that typically takes a month from start to finish.
A sac surrounded by a membrane that may lead to health problems.
Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
A procedure that dilates the cervix and scrapes away the uterine lining.
A synthetic androgen drug that treats endometriosis; can possible cause change in breast size, acne, weight gain, and other symptoms.
A synthetic form of estrogen used between 1938 1971 to prevent miscarriage and premature birth; this is known today to cause cancer and health problems in babies who were exposed in the utero.
DHEAS (Dihydroepiandrosterone Sulfate)
A weak male hormone that can cause excess hair growth and other symptoms in high doses; produced by adrenal gland in some women.
Donated eggs by healthy young women that are implanted into infertile women to get pregnant.
Procedure during artificial insemination in which donor sperm is injected into a woman's vagina, cervix or uterus.
Donor embryo transfer
When donor egg and/or sperm are transferred into a woman's uterus to try and get her pregnant during IVF.
Donated sperm by healthy men who are screened for illnesses, ethnicity, build and other traits; typically is frozen and held for 6+ months before being used in artificial insemination or ART.
A pregnancy in which a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, causing severe complications before it's terminated.
Female sex cell/female gamete that is fertilized by sperm during reproduction (also called ovum).
When egg is removed from the ovarian follicles using a thin needle for ICSI, IVF or other procedures.
A fluid expelled by the male that contains semen filled with sperm.
When a fertilized egg (embryo) is placed into the uterus using a catheter after IVF and other ART procedures.
The human fetus in early stage, between implantation and 8 weeks of pregnancy.
The study of hormones, glands, hormonal systems, and how they correlate together.
A sample taken from the uterine lining (endometrium) to screen for abnormalities.
A condition in which endometrial tissue is present in abnormal locations, like fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneal cavity, which often causes painful menstruation and infertility.
The uterus lining.
Substances in the body that create opiate like feeling, such as pain relief.
A tube that holds sperm, located near a man’s testicles.
An hormone containing estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
A hormone that stimulates the development of female sex characteristics.
Tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus where the egg is released during ovulation and then becomes fertilized by the sperm.
Doctors treat infertility, like a Reproductive Endocrinologist.
When an egg and sperm join to create a pregnancy.
The name for the embryo from 8 weeks after implantation until birth.
A benign tumor found in the uterine wall made of muscle cells and other tissues. (also called a myoma).
The please where a woman's egg grows and develops monthly in the ovary. The follicle releases the egg into the fallopian tube during ovulation.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
A hormone that stimulates ovarian follicles to grow from the pituitary gland.
The first phase of the menstrual cycle, when bleeding begins and ovarian follicles develop at day 1.
Fluid where the egg lives inside of the ovarian follicles.
A medication that helps recruit eggs during IVF or an intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle.<br />
A mature sex cell, the egg and the sperm.
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
The extraction of female eggs, mixed with sperm, which are then placed in the fallopian tubes for fertilization to occur.
The time period between fertilization/conception and the birth of a baby.
Reproductive glands that produce hormones and sex cells (eggs and sperm); in women, the ovaries, and in males, the testes.
Hormones that encourage follicular and egg development used during ovulation induction.
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
The hypothalamus secretes this hormone, helping release gonadotropins (LH and FSH), which stimulate the testicles or ovaries.
A medication prescribed to recruit eggs during IVF or an intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle.
A process when a male's sperm is mixed with hamster eggs to see how many sperm penetrate the egg (also called Sperm Penetration Assay or SPA).
A condition in which women have excess body and facial hair, due to high levels of androgens; this often occurs with PCOS.
A test that checks for levels of hormones like FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), DHEA S (dehydroepiandresterone), prolactin and progesterone.
A chemical produced in one organ that regulates activities of other organs in the body.
Cervical mucus that hinders the sperm from entering into the fallopian tubes for fertilization.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
A hormone helps to maintain progesterone levels in early pregnancy that is sometimes used to trigger ovulation.
Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG)
A hormone made of LH and FSH that is used to stimulate ovulation.
The accumulation of fluid in the scrotum.
High amounts of prolactin in the blood that can suppress LH and FSH production; this often affects male and female fertility.
Hyperstimulation (Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
A serious complication during medically induced ovulation where the ovaries swell, causing mild to severe side effects.
A condition in which the thyroid has excessive activity that can affect female ovulation and fertility.
When estrogen levels are lower than normal.
A low production of sperm.
The part of the brain that secretes GnRH, enabling the release of LH and FSH to stimulate the ovaries and testes.
A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to a slow metabolism and fatigue, and possibly impaired fertility.
A surgical procedure where partial or total removal of the uterus, ovaries and /or fallopian tubes occur that can lead to sterility.
An x-ray exam in which a special dye is injected into the uterus to observe the uterus and fallopian tubes.
A device, similar to a laparoscope that examines the interior of the cervix and uterus.
Immature sperm (germinal cell)
Sperm that are not fully mature and have low motility.
When the egg embeds into the uterine lining after fertilization and starts to develop as an embryo.
When a man cannot have erections or ejaculate semen.
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
A procedure in which one or more eggs, each removed from a ripe follicle, is fertilized by a sperm outside the human body.
When a woman under age 35 cannot get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term when trying to conceive one year, and when a women over age 35 cannot get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term when trying to conceive for six months.
Fertility medications that are injected into the body, usually for artificial insemination.
When a sperm is introduced into a woman’s body for fertilization
Intracervical Insemination (ICI)
When sperm are injected directly into a woman’s cervix using a syringe and catheter during artificial insemination.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
When a single sperm is injected into an egg, usually used with IVF.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
A procedure when sperm are collected and washed for insemination directly into a woman’s uterus using a catheter and syringe.
A test that analyzes chromosomes for potential genetic abnormalities.
A condition in which a male is born with two X and one Y chromosome, causing possible femininity and infertility.
A telescopic instrument that is used for viewing of the pelvis, ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes by inserting into a small incision in the abdomen.
A surgical procedure that opens the abdominal area to treat a variety of issues, such as removing adhesions and repairing tubes.
A cell in the testes producing male hormones, like testosterone, and is stimulated by LH from the pituitary gland.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
A hormone that stimulates the ovary to release an egg during ovulation in females and stimulates testosterone production in males.
A surge of LH after an egg is released from a follicle in the ovaries.
The final phase of the menstrual cycle after ovulation that ends with pregnancy or menses, lasting between 12-14 days.
Luteal phase defect (or deficiency) (LPD)
A deficiency in which the uterus will not be able to sustain a pregnancy due to abnormal hormone levels; this may cause recurrent miscarriages.
Male factor infertility
Infertility in men caused by health or anatomic issues.
A medication that helps recruit and mature eggs during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle.
A very heavy menstrual flow, or menses that lasts longer than usual.
The monthly cycle of bleeding when the uterine lining is shed after a woman does not get pregnant (also called menses, menstrual cycle).
An appearance of bleeding or spotting in the middle of menstruation.
A procedure where a microscopic single sperm is injected into an egg, like it is with ICSI.
A spontaneous expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus within the first 20 weeks of gestation; this occurs in approximately 20% of pregnancies.
A slight pain or cramping low in the abdomen that happens in women during ovulation.
The surgical procedure that removes benign fibroid tumors from the uterine wall.
Menstrual periods occurring less frequently than normal.
When sperm levels are low in the semen.
The female sex cell produced in the ovaries (also see egg, ovum, gamete).
A surgical procedure extract eggs in which a needle is inserted into the ovarian follicles.
When levels of FSH in the blood are elevated, usually showing a lack of ovarian response to FSH stimulation.
A fluid filled sac in the ovary that can can be benign or problematic; it may cause pain and can be an indicator of PCOS if there are multiple cysts.
A condition that may cause lower abdominal pain in women. This is typically caused by further complications, such as an internal hemorrhage, hyperstimulation, or a mass.
Female sex glands that produce eggs (ova) and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone).
When the ovary releases a mature egg in the middle of the menstrual cycle, often around day 14.
Use of a group of medications (fertility drugs) to improve hormone levels and/or boost the development and release of eggs during fertility treatment.
Ovulatory failure (anovulation)
Lack of ovulation during the menstrual cycle (no egg is released for fertilization).
Occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle; the release of the egg for fertilization.
Female sex cell that contains genetic material for the embryo (also called egg, gamete)
A test that helps detect abnormal cells in the cervix that may be cancerous.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
An infection within the pelvis that may cause fever, pain and possibly infertility; this can also lead to scar tissue and/or tubal problems.
Also know as the “master gland of the endocrine system”, this gland is located at the base of the brain, and releases and regulates the body’s hormones.
Post coital test (PCT)
A test done several hours after intercourse to screen for healthy, active sperm, fertile quality cervical mucus, and healthy sperm mucus interaction.
Premature ovarian failure (POF)
A condition associated with high levels of gonadotropins and low levels of estrogen, usually causing menstruation to end before age 40.
When a couple has yet to have a successful pregnancy or when a couple has gotten pregnant but never had a live birth.
A hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary that prepares the uterus for pregnancy after ovulation.
A hormone that helps women to make breastmilk after giving birth; in women that are not nursing, abnormal levels of this hormone can hinder ovulation, possibly causing infertility.
Pronuclear stage tubal transfer (PROST) (ZIFT)
An assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure where eggs are retrieved and fertilized by sperm in vitro, transferring to the woman’s body before the cells divide.
Hormone like substances found in both men and women that are removed using sperm washing techniques during artificial insemination to reduce cramping in the woman’s body.
A male gland circling the urethra, the prostate gland is the tube that carries urine out of the body.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
When two or more pregnancies have failed, especially if they happen successively.
Reproductive Endocrinologist (RE)
A doctor that is trained in obstetrics and gynecology, and also board certified in reproductive endocrinology; the study of fertility, glands and hormones.
A situation in which ejaculated semen ravels backwards into the bladder due to a problem with the sphincter muscle.
A protein found in red blood cells in most people. However, if the fetus has Rh factor in the blood but the mother does not, the mother’s body will produce antibodies that attack red blood cells in the fetus.
A surgical procedure that removes the fallopian tubes.
The sac of skin on the outer genitalia of the male containing the testes.
Infertility occurring after a couple have had a successful pregnancy and/or live birth.
Secondary sex characteristics
Physical characteristics like breasts, facial and body hair, voice changes and others that appear during puberty, distinguishing males apart from females.
A liquid medium that protects and nourishes the sperm when carrying outside the body.
Examining semen under a microscope to analyze sperm count, movement (motility), and the size/shape of the sperm.
High frequency sound waves used to monitor pregnancy and observe images of internal body parts to detect any irregularities.
Sperm penetration assay (SPA)
A test typically done before IVF mixing a male sperm with hamster eggs to determine how many sperm penetrate the egg (also called hamster test).
Sex cell in men carried in semen that holds male genetic information (also called gamete).
A place where sperm are stored frozen in liquid nitrate to be thawed for later use in insemination and ART procedures.
Movement of sperm that is a sign of male fertility when good.
The size and shape of the sperm; when abnormal it can indicate male factor infertility.
Sperm fully develops after 90 days, when they grow and attain better motility for fertilization.
The ability of a sperm to penetrate an egg during fertilization.
A procedure of washing sperm that is done for artificial insemination, removes toxic chemicals, reduces cramping and allergic reactions in females after artificial insemination.
A condition when one is unable to conceive.
The loss of a fetus at some time from 20 weeks gestation and birth.
Using fertility drugs to stimulate a woman to release multiple eggs (also known as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or COH).
A woman who gets pregnant and gives birth for a couple who cannot get pregnant on their own.
Pair of male reproductive glands that produce testosterone and sperm.
Testicular/epididymal sperm aspiration (TESA)
Sperm are extracted from the testis or epididymis with a needle.
A male sex hormone necessary for the development of male secondary sex characteristics, sex drive and sperm development.
TET (tubal embryo transfer)
A procedure that occurs after cell division of a fertilized egg when the egg is then placed directly into the fallopian tubes.
A permanent form of female birth control where the fallopian tubes are cut or tied, making the woman sterile.
A condition where a female has one X chromosome and no Y chromosomes, resulting in limited height, underdeveloped ovaries, lack of ovulation and infertility.
High frequency sound waves used to monitor pregnancy and observe images of internal body parts to detect any abnormalities (also called sonogram).
When a couple’s infertility problems are unknown and cannot be diagnosed.
An abnormal uterus characterized by a smaller size and a single horn shape that can cause discomfort and infertility.
The tube carrying urine outside of the body, and in males this tube also carries semen outside of the body.
A physician specializing in urinary and urogenital medicine.
One of two tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus where the egg is released during ovulation, waiting to be fertilized (also called fallopian tube)
A muscular organ that contains, protects and nourishes the embryo and fetus during pregnancy (also known as the womb).
The process of placing a probe into the vagina and using sound waves to view follicles, ovaries, eggs, fetus, and other internal organs.
A fungal or bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the vagina which may lead to irritation and discharge.
Varicose veins in the scrotum that cause an abnormal flow of blood in the male genitalia and may lead to male infertility.
A form of permanent male birth control in which the vas deferens is blocked or cut, preventing the release of sperm in the semen.
Surgery that reconnects the vas deferens after a vasectomy, restoring fertility in many cases.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and others that can lead to illness and infertility.
The early stage of the fertilized egg before division occurs.
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
An ART procedure in which a fertilized egg is transferred into the fallopian tube 1 day after fertilization.