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    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Abortion

    When a pregnancy is terminated before 20 weeks of gestation.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Abortion (Spontaneous)

    When pregnancy is lost naturally within 20 weeks of pregnancy.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Abortion (Habitual)

    When 3 or more spontaneous abortions occur in a row.

     

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    A

    Abortion (Incomplete)

    An abortion that causes pain and bleeding, but still keeps embryonic and fetal tissue inside the uterus.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Abortion (Missed)

    The loss of a fetus with no known symptoms. A D&C is required to complete the abortion.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Abortion (Therapeutic)

    When a pregnancy is terminated due to a mother's health in question.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Abortion (Threatened)

    Spotting/cramping within the first 20 weeks of gestation that may cause a miscarriage.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    ACTH

    A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal gland. This is sometimes associated with infertility.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Adhesion

    Bands of scar tissue found in reproductive organs and abdominal area that can impact fertility; this often pairs with endometriosis.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Adrenal Androgens

    Male hormones that are elevated in women with PCOS. They are produced in the adrenal gland and can cause fertility problems.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Amenorrhea

    When menstruation is absent for more than six months.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Amenorrhea (primary)

    Never menstruating by age 16.

     

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    A

    Amenorrhea (Secondary)

    When a woman has not menstruated in 3 months or more after previously experiencing menstruation.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)

    A group of reproductive and fertility specialists that teach, research and advocate for reproductive medicine.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Amniocentesis

    A procedure to check an abnormal fetus by extracting amniotic fluid from the womb with a needle.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Andrologist

    A doctor specializing in male health, especially reproductive health and male fertility.

     

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    A

    Anovulation

    A lack of ovulation that can occur with or without menstruation.

     

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    A

    Antibodies

    Substances that attack foreign matter in the body and fight infection. This also can sometimes cause infertility.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Artificial Insemination (AI)

    Injecting a sperm directly into a female's vagina, cervix or uterus to fertilize an egg.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Asherman's Syndrome

    A condition in which scar tissue forms in the uterus, leading to an irregular menstrual cycle or possibly infertility.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Aspiration

    When fluid or tissue is suctioned from the body with a tube or needle.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

    Fertility treatments that involve both the egg and sperm, including IUI, IVF, GIFT, and ZIFT.

     

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    A

    Assisted hatching

    A procedure that breaks down the thick outer wall of an embryo to begin implantation.

     

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    A

    Asthenozoospermia

    Poor quality sperm caused by reduced motility.

     

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    A

    Azoospermia

    When sperm is missing in semen sometimes due to blockages.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    B

    Basal Body Temperature (BBT)

    When a temperature is taken first thing in the morning after waking up that rises and falls because of changes in hormone levels in a menstrual cycle.

     

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    B

    Beta hCG Test

    A blood test measuring hCG levels in early pregnancy.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    B

    Bicornuate uterus

    Abnormal issues in the uterus structure that can be fixed with surgery, but may cause infertility.

     

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    B

    Blighted ovum (egg)

    A fertilized egg implanted in the uterus that has not developed properly.

     

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    B

    Bromocriptine (Parlodel)

    A medication treating pituitary tumors and reduces levels of prolactin.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Canceled cycle

    When an ART cycle is stopped due to issues with follicle development, lack of fertilization, or other problems.

     

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    C

    Candidiasis

    An infection in the vagina caused by fungus that can lead to pain, itching and discomfort.

     

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    C

    Complete Blood Count (CBC)

    A blood test measuring red and white blood cells, hemoglobin and other factors to determine any potential disease.

     

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    C

    Cervical mucus

    Mucus found in the cervix that changes consistency during the menstrual cycle.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Cervical smear

    A cellular sample taken from the cervix to screen for abnormalities and cancer.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Cervix

    A one inch A1:D199 canal located above the vagina at the lower end of the uterus through which blood passes during A1:D199 sperm travels into to reach the fallopian tubes, and the baby passes through during birth.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Cervix, incompetent

    When the cervix opens during pregnancy before baby is fully-developed, and labor is ready to begin.

     

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    C

    Chemical pregnancy

    When an egg implants itself before being fully developed; this is the cause of many miscarriages.

     

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    C

    Chocolate cyst

    Ovarian cysts that have old blood that has turned brown.

     

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    C

    Chromosome

    Our genetic material held in a structure.

     

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    C

    Cilia

    Hair-like structures that move the egg into the fallopian tubes.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Clinical pregnancy

    A confirmed pregnancy through clinical intervention, such as an ultrasound.

     

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    C

    Clomiphene citrate

    A medication that creates a surge of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland and boosts fertility by stimulating ovulation.

     

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    C

    Corpus luteum

    Endocrine tissue secreting progesterone when ovulation is over and pregnancy occurs to boost implantation.

     

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    C

    Cryopreservation

    Using a freezing environment to preserve eggs, embryos and sperm for fertility treatment and ART.

     

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    C

    Cushing's syndrome

    An excess of corticosteroids, like cortisol that causes weight gain, male sex characteristics and other symptoms in women that can lead to infertility.

     

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    C

    Cycle

    A round of fertility that typically takes a month from start to finish.

     

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    C

    Cyst

    A sac surrounded by a membrane that may lead to health problems.

     

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    D

    Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    A procedure that dilates the cervix and scrapes away the uterine lining.

     

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    D

    Danazol (danocrine)

    A synthetic androgen drug that treats endometriosis; can possible cause change in breast size, acne, weight gain, and other symptoms.

     

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    D

    DES (Diethylstilbestrol)

    A synthetic form of estrogen used between 1938 1971 to prevent miscarriage and premature birth; this is known today to cause cancer and health problems in babies who were exposed in the utero.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    D

    DHEAS (Dihydroepiandrosterone Sulfate)

    A weak male hormone that can cause excess hair growth and other symptoms in high doses; produced by adrenal gland in some women.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    D

    Donor egg

    Donated eggs by healthy young women that are implanted into infertile women to get pregnant.

     

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    D

    Donor insemination

    Procedure during artificial insemination in which donor sperm is injected into a woman's vagina, cervix or uterus.

     

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    D

    Donor embryo transfer

    When donor egg and/or sperm are transferred into a woman's uterus to try and get her pregnant during IVF.

     

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    D

    Donor sperm

    Donated sperm by healthy men who are screened for illnesses, ethnicity, build and other traits; typically is frozen and held for 6+ months before being used in artificial insemination or ART.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Ectopic pregnancy

    A pregnancy in which a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, causing severe complications before it's terminated.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Egg

    Female sex cell/female gamete that is fertilized by sperm during reproduction (also called ovum).

     

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    E

    Egg retrieval

    When egg is removed from the ovarian follicles using a thin needle for ICSI, IVF or other procedures.

     

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    E

    Ejaculate

    A fluid expelled by the male that contains semen filled with sperm.

     

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    E

    Embryo transfer

    When a fertilized egg (embryo) is placed into the uterus using a catheter after IVF and other ART procedures.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Embryo

    The human fetus in early stage, between implantation and 8 weeks of pregnancy.

     

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    E

    Endocrinology

    The study of hormones, glands, hormonal systems, and how they correlate together.

     

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    E

    Endometrial biopsy

    A sample taken from the uterine lining (endometrium) to screen for abnormalities.

     

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    E

    Endometriosis

    A condition in which endometrial tissue is present in abnormal locations, like fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneal cavity, which often causes painful menstruation and infertility.

     

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    E

    Endometrium

    The uterus lining.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Endorphins

    Substances in the body that create opiate like feeling, such as pain relief.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Epididymis

    A tube that holds sperm, located near a man’s testicles.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Estradiol

    An hormone containing estrogen secreted by the ovaries.

     

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    E

    Estrogen

    A hormone that stimulates the development of female sex characteristics.

     

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    F

    Fallopian tube

    Tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus where the egg is released during ovulation and then becomes fertilized by the sperm.

     

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    F

    Fertility specialist

    Doctors treat infertility, like a Reproductive Endocrinologist.

     

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    F

    Fertilization

    When an egg and sperm join to create a pregnancy.

     

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    F

    Fetus

    The name for the embryo from 8 weeks after implantation until birth.

     

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    F

    Fibroid

    A benign tumor found in the uterine wall made of muscle cells and other tissues. (also called a myoma).

     

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    F

    Follicle

    The please where a woman's egg grows and develops monthly in the ovary. The follicle releases the egg into the fallopian tube during ovulation.

     

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    F

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    A hormone that stimulates ovarian follicles to grow from the pituitary gland.

     

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    F

    Follicular phase

    The first phase of the menstrual cycle, when bleeding begins and ovarian follicles develop at day 1.

     

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    F

    Follicular fluid

    Fluid where the egg lives inside of the ovarian follicles.

     

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    F

    Follistim

    A medication that helps recruit eggs during IVF or an intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle.<br />

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    G

    Gamete

    A mature sex cell, the egg and the sperm.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    G

    Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)

    The extraction of female eggs, mixed with sperm, which are then placed in the fallopian tubes for fertilization to occur.

     

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    G

    Gestation

    The time period between fertilization/conception and the birth of a baby.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    G

    Gonad

    Reproductive glands that produce hormones and sex cells (eggs and sperm); in women, the ovaries, and in males, the testes.

     

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    G

    Gonadotropin

    Hormones that encourage follicular and egg development used during ovulation induction.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    G

    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

    The hypothalamus secretes this hormone, helping release gonadotropins (LH and FSH), which stimulate the testicles or ovaries.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    G

    Gonal-F

    A medication prescribed to recruit eggs during IVF or an intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hamster test

    A process when a male's sperm is mixed with hamster eggs to see how many sperm penetrate the egg (also called Sperm Penetration Assay or SPA).

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hirsutism

    A condition in which women have excess body and facial hair, due to high levels of androgens; this often occurs with PCOS.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hormonal assay

    A test that checks for levels of hormones like FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), DHEA S (dehydroepiandresterone), prolactin and progesterone.

     

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    H

    Hormone

    A chemical produced in one organ that regulates activities of other organs in the body.

     

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    H

    Hostile mucus

    Cervical mucus that hinders the sperm from entering into the fallopian tubes for fertilization.

     

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    H

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

    A hormone helps to maintain progesterone levels in early pregnancy that is sometimes used to trigger ovulation.

     

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    H

    Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG)

    A hormone made of LH and FSH that is used to stimulate ovulation.

     

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    H

    Hydrocele

    The accumulation of fluid in the scrotum.

     

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    H

    Hyperprolactinemia

    High amounts of prolactin in the blood that can suppress LH and FSH production; this often affects male and female fertility.

     

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    H

    Hyperstimulation (Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)

    A serious complication during medically induced ovulation where the ovaries swell, causing mild to severe side effects.

     

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    H

    Hyperthyroidism

    A condition in which the thyroid has excessive activity that can affect female ovulation and fertility.

     

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    H

    Hypoestrogenic

    When estrogen levels are lower than normal.

     

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    H

    Hypospermatogenesis

    A low production of sperm.

     

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    H

    Hypothalamus

    The part of the brain that secretes GnRH, enabling the release of LH and FSH to stimulate the ovaries and testes.

     

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    H

    Hypothyroidism

    A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to a slow metabolism and fatigue, and possibly impaired fertility.

     

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    H

    Hysterectomy

    A surgical procedure where partial or total removal of the uterus, ovaries and /or fallopian tubes occur that can lead to sterility.

     

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    H

    Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

    An x-ray exam in which a special dye is injected into the uterus to observe the uterus and fallopian tubes.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hysteroscope

    A device, similar to a laparoscope that examines the interior of the cervix and uterus.

     

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    I

    Immature sperm (germinal cell)

    Sperm that are not fully mature and have low motility.

     

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    I

    Implantation

    When the egg embeds into the uterine lining after fertilization and starts to develop as an embryo.

     

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    I

    Impotence

    When a man cannot have erections or ejaculate semen.

     

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    I

    In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    A procedure in which one or more eggs, each removed from a ripe follicle, is fertilized by a sperm outside the human body.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    I

    Infertility

    When a woman under age 35 cannot get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term when trying to conceive one year, and when a women over age 35 cannot get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term when trying to conceive for six months.

     

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    I

    Injectables

    Fertility medications that are injected into the body, usually for artificial insemination.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    I

    Insemination

    When a sperm is introduced into a woman’s body for fertilization

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    I

    Intracervical Insemination (ICI)

    When sperm are injected directly into a woman’s cervix using a syringe and catheter during artificial insemination.

     

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    I

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    When a single sperm is injected into an egg, usually used with IVF.

     

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    I

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

    A procedure when sperm are collected and washed for insemination directly into a woman’s uterus using a catheter and syringe.

     

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    K

    Karyotyping

    A test that analyzes chromosomes for potential genetic abnormalities.

     

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    K

    Klinefelter's Syndrome

    A condition in which a male is born with two X and one Y chromosome, causing possible femininity and infertility.

     

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    L

    Laparoscope

    A telescopic instrument that is used for viewing of the pelvis, ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes by inserting into a small incision in the abdomen.

     

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    L

    Laparotomy

    A surgical procedure that opens the abdominal area to treat a variety of issues, such as removing adhesions and repairing tubes.

     

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    L

    Leydig cell

    A cell in the testes producing male hormones, like testosterone, and is stimulated by LH from the pituitary gland.

     

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    L

    Luteinizing hormone (LH)

    A hormone that stimulates the ovary to release an egg during ovulation in females and stimulates testosterone production in males.

     

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    L

    LH surge

    A surge of LH after an egg is released from a follicle in the ovaries.

     

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    L

    Luteal phase

    The final phase of the menstrual cycle after ovulation that ends with pregnancy or menses, lasting between 12-14 days.

     

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    L

    Luteal phase defect (or deficiency) (LPD)

    A deficiency in which the uterus will not be able to sustain a pregnancy due to abnormal hormone levels; this may cause recurrent miscarriages.

     

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    M

    Male factor infertility

    Infertility in men caused by health or anatomic issues.

     

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    M

    Menopur

    A medication that helps recruit and mature eggs during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle.

     

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    M

    Menorrhagia

    A very heavy menstrual flow, or menses that lasts longer than usual.

     

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    M

    Menstruation

    The monthly cycle of bleeding when the uterine lining is shed after a woman does not get pregnant (also called menses, menstrual cycle).

     

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    M

    Metrorrhagia

    An appearance of bleeding or spotting in the middle of menstruation.

     

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    M

    Micromanipulation

    A procedure where a microscopic single sperm is injected into an egg, like it is with ICSI.

     

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    M

    Miscarriage

    A spontaneous expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus within the first 20 weeks of gestation; this occurs in approximately 20% of pregnancies.

     

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    M

    Mittleschmerz

    A slight pain or cramping low in the abdomen that happens in women during ovulation.

     

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    M

    Myomectomy

    The surgical procedure that removes benign fibroid tumors from the uterine wall.

     

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    O

    Oligmenorrhea

    Menstrual periods occurring less frequently than normal.

     

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    O

    Oligospermia

    When sperm levels are low in the semen.

     

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    O

    Oocyte

    The female sex cell produced in the ovaries (also see egg, ovum, gamete).

     

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    O

    Oocyte retrieval

    A surgical procedure extract eggs in which a needle is inserted into the ovarian follicles.

     

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    O

    Ovarian failure

    When levels of FSH in the blood are elevated, usually showing a lack of ovarian response to FSH stimulation.

     

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    O

    Ovarian cyst

    A fluid filled sac in the ovary that can can be benign or problematic; it may cause pain and can be an indicator of PCOS if there are multiple cysts.

     

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    O

    Ovarian Torsion

    A condition that may cause lower abdominal pain in women. This is typically caused by further complications, such as an internal hemorrhage, hyperstimulation, or a mass.

     

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    O

    Ovary

    Female sex glands that produce eggs (ova) and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone).

     

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    O

    Ovulation

    When the ovary releases a mature egg in the middle of the menstrual cycle, often around day 14.

     

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    O

    Ovulation induction

    Use of a group of medications (fertility drugs) to improve hormone levels and/or boost the development and release of eggs during fertility treatment.

     

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    O

    Ovulatory failure (anovulation)

    Lack of ovulation during the menstrual cycle (no egg is released for fertilization).

     

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    O

    Ovulatory phase

    Occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle; the release of the egg for fertilization.

     

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    O

    Ovum

    Female sex cell that contains genetic material for the embryo (also called egg, gamete)

     

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    P

    Pap test

    A test that helps detect abnormal cells in the cervix that may be cancerous.

     

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    P

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    An infection within the pelvis that may cause fever, pain and possibly infertility; this can also lead to scar tissue and/or tubal problems.

     

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    P

    Pituitary gland

    Also know as the “master gland of the endocrine system”, this gland is located at the base of the brain, and releases and regulates the body’s hormones.

     

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    P

    Post coital test (PCT)

    A test done several hours after intercourse to screen for healthy, active sperm, fertile quality cervical mucus, and healthy sperm mucus interaction.

     

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    P

    Premature ovarian failure (POF)

    A condition associated with high levels of gonadotropins and low levels of estrogen, usually causing menstruation to end before age 40.

     

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    P

    Primary Infertility

    When a couple has yet to have a successful pregnancy or when a couple has gotten pregnant but never had a live birth.

     

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    P

    Progesterone

    A hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary that prepares the uterus for pregnancy after ovulation.

     

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    P

    Prolactin

    A hormone that helps women to make breastmilk after giving birth; in women that are not nursing, abnormal levels of this hormone can hinder ovulation, possibly causing infertility.

     

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    P

    Pronuclear stage tubal transfer (PROST) (ZIFT)

    An assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure where eggs are retrieved and fertilized by sperm in vitro, transferring to the woman’s body before the cells divide.

     

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    P

    Prostaglandins

    Hormone like substances found in both men and women that are removed using sperm washing techniques during artificial insemination to reduce cramping in the woman’s body.

     

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    P

    Prostate gland

    A male gland circling the urethra, the prostate gland is the tube that carries urine out of the body.

     

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    R

    Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    When two or more pregnancies have failed, especially if they happen successively.

     

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    Reproductive Endocrinologist (RE)

    A doctor that is trained in obstetrics and gynecology, and also board certified in reproductive endocrinology; the study of fertility, glands and hormones.

     

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    Retrograde Ejaculation

    A situation in which ejaculated semen ravels backwards into the bladder due to a problem with the sphincter muscle.

     

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    Rh Factor

    A protein found in red blood cells in most people. However, if the fetus has Rh factor in the blood but the mother does not, the mother’s body will produce antibodies that attack red blood cells in the fetus.

     

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    Salpingectomy

    A surgical procedure that removes the fallopian tubes.

     

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    Scrotum

    The sac of skin on the outer genitalia of the male containing the testes.

     

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    Secondary infertility

    Infertility occurring after a couple have had a successful pregnancy and/or live birth.

     

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    Secondary sex characteristics

    Physical characteristics like breasts, facial and body hair, voice changes and others that appear during puberty, distinguishing males apart from females.

     

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    Semen

    A liquid medium that protects and nourishes the sperm when carrying outside the body.

     

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    Semen analysis

    Examining semen under a microscope to analyze sperm count, movement (motility), and the size/shape of the sperm.

     

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    Sonogram (ultrasound)

    High frequency sound waves used to monitor pregnancy and observe images of internal body parts to detect any irregularities.

     

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    Sperm penetration assay (SPA)

    A test typically done before IVF mixing a male sperm with hamster eggs to determine how many sperm penetrate the egg (also called hamster test).

     

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    Sperm

    Sex cell in men carried in semen that holds male genetic information (also called gamete).

     

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    Sperm Bank

    A place where sperm are stored frozen in liquid nitrate to be thawed for later use in insemination and ART procedures.

     

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    Sperm motility

    Movement of sperm that is a sign of male fertility when good.

     

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    Sperm morphology

    The size and shape of the sperm; when abnormal it can indicate male factor infertility.

     

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    Sperm maturation

    Sperm fully develops after 90 days, when they grow and attain better motility for fertilization.

     

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    Sperm penetration

    The ability of a sperm to penetrate an egg during fertilization.

     

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    Sperm wash

    A procedure of washing sperm that is done for artificial insemination, removes toxic chemicals, reduces cramping and allergic reactions in females after artificial insemination.

     

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    Sterility

    A condition when one is unable to conceive.

     

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    Stillbirth

    The loss of a fetus at some time from 20 weeks gestation and birth.

     

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    Superovulatio

    Using fertility drugs to stimulate a woman to release multiple eggs (also known as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or COH).

     

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    Surrogate mother

    A woman who gets pregnant and gives birth for a couple who cannot get pregnant on their own.

     

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    T

    Testicles

    Pair of male reproductive glands that produce testosterone and sperm.

     

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    T

    Testicular/epididymal sperm aspiration (TESA)

    Sperm are extracted from the testis or epididymis with a needle.

     

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    Testosterone

    A male sex hormone necessary for the development of male secondary sex characteristics, sex drive and sperm development.

     

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    T

    TET (tubal embryo transfer)

    A procedure that occurs after cell division of a fertilized egg when the egg is then placed directly into the fallopian tubes.

     

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    Tubal Ligation

    A permanent form of female birth control where the fallopian tubes are cut or tied, making the woman sterile.

     

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    Turner's syndrome

    A condition where a female has one X chromosome and no Y chromosomes, resulting in limited height, underdeveloped ovaries, lack of ovulation and infertility.

     

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    U

    Ultrasound

    High frequency sound waves used to monitor pregnancy and observe images of internal body parts to detect any abnormalities (also called sonogram).

     

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    Unexplained Infertility

    When a couple’s infertility problems are unknown and cannot be diagnosed.

     

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    Unicornuate uterus

    An abnormal uterus characterized by a smaller size and a single horn shape that can cause discomfort and infertility.

     

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    Urethra

    The tube carrying urine outside of the body, and in males this tube also carries semen outside of the body.

     

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    Urologist

    A physician specializing in urinary and urogenital medicine.

     

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    Uterine tube

    One of two tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus where the egg is released during ovulation, waiting to be fertilized (also called fallopian tube)

     

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    Uterus

    A muscular organ that contains, protects and nourishes the embryo and fetus during pregnancy (also known as the womb).

     

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    V

    Vaginal ultrasound

    The process of placing a probe into the vagina and using sound waves to view follicles, ovaries, eggs, fetus, and other internal organs.

     

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    Vaginitis

    A fungal or bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the vagina which may lead to irritation and discharge.

     

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    Varicocele

    Varicose veins in the scrotum that cause an abnormal flow of blood in the male genitalia and may lead to male infertility.

     

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    Vasectomy

    A form of permanent male birth control in which the vas deferens is blocked or cut, preventing the release of sperm in the semen.

     

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    Vasectomy Reversal

    Surgery that reconnects the vas deferens after a vasectomy, restoring fertility in many cases.

     

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    Venereal disease

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and others that can lead to illness and infertility.

     

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    Z

    Zygote

    The early stage of the fertilized egg before division occurs.

     

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    Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)

    An ART procedure in which a fertilized egg is transferred into the fallopian tube 1 day after fertilization.